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My profile picture Kushajveer Singh


  • Use the minimum state to represent a component and do not repeat state. If a state can be computed from existing state, then compute it, do not duplicate it.



Specify class name using className, and then you can add the style in css file and use link tag to include it in the html.

return (


To add inline style pass an object to style as style={obj} or style={{ width: ... }}.

return (
      width: user.imageSize,


Approach 1. Outside JSX

if (isLoggedIn) {
  content = <AdminPanel />;
} else {
  content = <LoginForm />;

return <div>{content}</div>;

Approach 2. Inside JSX

return (
    {isLoggedIn ? (
        <AdminPanel />
    ) : (
        <LoginForm />

// or without else condition
return (
    {isLoggedIn && <AdminPanel />}

for-loop / map

From a performance perspective

  • Map is slower as it involves function calls for each element in the array. But this difference is negligible for small to moderately sized arrays.
  • For loop does not involve any function call. So if you are using for-loop, it will automatically scale to larger inputs, and give you free performance.

Respect immutability when using for-loop, do not modify the original array. When using map we cannot modify the original array, and reflect this when using for-loop also.

key value

  • use id provided associated with the item as the key (like database id).
  • use index as the last resort for the key value

How list re-rendering works

  • When a list is re-rendered, React takes each list item’s key and searches the previous list’s items for a matching key.
  • If the current list has a key that didn’t exist before, React creates a new component.
  • If the current list is missing a key that existed in the previous list, React destroys the previous component.
  • If the two keys match, the corresponding component is removed.
  • This helps the components keep state, between re-renders. If the component key changes, the component will be destroyed and re-created with a new state.

Using map

const arr = [
  { title: "Cabbage", id: 1 },
  { title: "Garlic", id: 2 },
  { title: "Apple", id: 3 }

return (
    {, index) => {
      return <li key={index}>{item['title']}</li>

Using for loop

const listItems = Array(arr.length);
for (let i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {
  listItems[i] = <li key={i}>{arr[i]['title']}</li>;

return (

Event handlers

return (
  <button onClick={handleClick}>
    Click me


To share data between components.

export default function MyApp() {
  const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

  const handleClick = () => setCount(count+1);

  return (
      <MyButton count={count} onClick={handleClick} />
      <MyButton count={count} onClick={handleClick} />

function MyButton({ count, onClick }) {
  return (
    <button onClick={onClick}>
      Clicked {count} times


Instead of changing the original data, create a copy and change that. This is the general approach used in React.

Benefits of immutability

  • Makes complex features easier to implement.
  • Let’s you keep previous versions of the data intact, and reuse them later.
  • By default, all child components are re-rendered automatically, when the state of the parent component changes, including the child components that weren’t affected by the change. Immutability makes it very cheap for components to compare whether their data has changed or not, and thus avoid the re-render.

Setup React without Next.js

For entire subroute

If you have a website deployed at (tech stack does not matter), and want to implement all routes starting with fully with React, use these steps

  • Use a React framework and specify /some-app as the base path in the framework’s configuration.
  • Configure the server/proxy so that all requests under /some-app/ are handled by React app.
  • If you do not want the React to run on a server, use static export to generate HTML/CSS/JS and place them at /some-app/.

As part of existing page

If you have your existing tech stack, and want to use React to render interactive React components somewhere on the page

  • Check if <div /> gives an error in your JS code. If it does, then use Babel React preset to handle this.
  • Setup Vite to enable import/export syntax and use vite-express plugin to add support for Express.

To check if the above steps worked

  • npm install react react-dom, and add this to your main JS file
import { createRoot } from 'react-dom/client';

document.body.innerHTML = '<div id="app"></div>';

const root = createRoot(document.getElementById('app'));
root.render(<h1>Hello, world</h1>);



interface MyComponentProps {
  title: string;
  disabled: boolean;

function MyComponent({ title, disabled }: MyComponentProps) {


// Type is inferred in this case
const [enabled, setEnabled] = useState(false);

// Explicitly provide a type
const [enabled, setEnabled] = useState<boolean>(false);

// Provide type for different possibilities of props
type RequestState =
  | { status: 'idle' }
  | { status: 'loading' }
  | { status: 'success', data: any }
  | { status: 'error', error: Error };

const [requestState, setRequestState] = useState<RequestState>({ status: 'idle' });


interface State {
  count: number
type CounterAction =
  | { type: 'reset' }
  | { type: 'setCount'; value: State['count'] }

const initialState: State = { count: 0 };

function stateReducer(state: State, action: CounterAction): State {
  switch (action.type) {
    case ...:
      throw new Error('Unknown action');

export default function App() {
    const [state, dispatch] = useReducer(stateReducer, initialState);


type theme = 'light' | 'dark' | 'system';
const ThemeContext = createContext<Theme>('system');


// Type inferred from return type of the function, but can be explicity
// provided also
const visibleTodos = useMemo(() => filterTodos(todos, tab), [todos, tab]);


// Although type can be automatically inferred from the return value of the
// function, but in strict mode, you need to provide the type
const handleChange = useCallback<React.ChangeEventHandler<HTMLInputElement>>((event) => {
}, [setValue]);

DOM Events

A type is provided for the most popular events from the DOM in @types/react, and you can use that as React.ChangeEvent<HTMLInputElement>.

If an event type is not provided by React, use React.SyntheticEvent type which is base for all events.


When describing the children on a component

  • Use React.ReactNode, which is a union of all the possible types that can be passed as children in JSX.
    interface ModalRendererProps {
      title: string;
      children: React.ReactNode;
  • Use React.ReactElement which is only JSX elements and not JavaScript primitives.

You cannot describe that the children are a certain type of JSX like <li>.

Style props

To add type to the inline style object use React.CSSProperties as the type.


  • Component names start with capital letter.
  • Component should follow single responsibility principle. If it ends up growing, it should be decomposed into subcomponents.
  • Never define a component inside another component.